No Saints: Romania’s Legionary Death Cult

Book review:

Holy Legionary Youth: Fascist Activism in Interwar Romania
By Roland Clark

The next time anyone tries to convince you that the Romanian Legionary Movement of the 1930s and early 1940s was anything other than evil it is enough to remember just one passage describing the Bucharest pogrom of January 1941 from this quite brilliant book:

Legionaries began arresting Jews on 20 January, and the following afternoon gangs of legionaries invaded Bucharest’s two largest Jewish neighbourhoods. They loaded roughly two thousand Jews – including children and the elderly – onto trucks and transported them to prearranged sites where they beat, raped and tortured them. Of the legionaries involved in torturing Jews at the police station on Matei Basarab Street, most were aged between fifteen and twenty-five years old.

Despite such horrors there is an increasingly vocal minority of people in Romania attempting to rehabilitate the legionaries, emphasising the suffering endured by many of them at the end of World War II, when they were imprisoned. Some have gone so far as to propose their canonisation, calling them Christian martyrs. Read Roland Clark’s book and you will be left in no doubt as to whether or not these thugs were saints.

They were not, in the first place, Christian. Though legionary dogma contained certain mystical elements and its practices (and name) borrowed from Eastern Orthodoxy, the Legion was a death cult which resembled the secular Nazi SS far more than a religious movement. Plenty of Orthodox priests condemned the Legion. The monks at Putna Monastery in Bucovina went so far as to refuse to bless their flags and other paraphernalia. Indeed, as the author explains, the legionaries did not view themselves as being particularly religious. The narrative that they were ‘good Christian boys doing God’s work’ only appears much later, after many had rotted away in prison.

Boys, however, they certainly were. The Legion’s membership was made up primarily of very young, physically impressive, racially pure though often poorly educated youths: almost exclusively male. Just like the Nazis, the Legion had little time for the frail, the physically impaired or the disabled. The Legion was fixated by muscular masculinity and the idea of creating a ‘new Romanian man’ (something with which Nicolae Ceausescu would later become equally obsessed). ‘Work camps’ were organised at which strenuous physical exercise, generally done in very little clothing, was ever present but women seldom were. You can join the rainbow-coloured dots yourself.

Screenshot 2016-03-19 14.40.41

While Clark makes it clear that some of these young men were manipulated by their leaders into committing acts of violence he goes too far in our opinion towards using their naïveté as an excuse for their barbarism. It is a moot point of course, and is just about the only fault we could find. Holy Legionary Youth is packed with detail, impeccably documented and – given its academic provenance – thoroughly readable.

We were put onto the book by a reader who had listened to this podcast, in which the author discusses it. If your interest in the subject does not stretch to the £25 for the book itself (even the Kindle version is £20+), the podcast is well worth a listen, as Clark talks at length about many of its main themes.

Romania’s infamous Legion of the Archangel Michael grew out of various anti-Semitic, anti-foreigner political movements which appeared in the aftermath of World War I. The charm of Queen Marie had managed to more than double Romania’s size at the Treaty of Versailles, and as a result various nationalities, from Ruthenians and Ukrainians to Hungarians and Saxons had to be incorporated into what had hitherto been a far more homogeneous country. All were targeted at some stage, but it was the Jews who bore the brunt of the fascist movement’s discourse and attacks, beginning with the chaotic student protests of 1922 and ending in the pogroms of the 1940s.

The Legion spent much of the early 1930s roaming Romania’s cities attacking anyone they disapproved of, primarily (but not only) Jews. They found such things amusing. Like many young men from all over the world, some even went to Spain: not to fight for freedom and the Spanish republic however, but to fight with Franco. The dead were then given state-like funerals when their bodies were returned.

The Legion was led by Corneliu Zelea-Codreanu: a vicious murderer with a messianic-complex who saw violence not merely as a means of achieving political goals, but also as something that would boost the masculinity of those who perpetrated it. On his wedding day he and his wife wore crowns emblazoned with swastikas.

codreanu-swastika

As the 1930s progressed Codreanu’s disciples terrorised large swathes of the Romanian population, carrying out political assasinations and murder with impunity. And as Clark is not slow to point out, they did so with much popular support, both from the peasantry and from intellectuals who really ought to have known better. Emil Cioran and Mircea Eliade were just two of the astute minds seduced by the Legion. To his eternal credit, Cioran spent much of the latter part of his life genuinely remorseful and deeply ashamed of his earlier fascist sympathies. Eliade’s attitude towards the Legion was always far more ambiguous.

Some intellectuals went beyond merely sympathising with the upstart political movement of the day. Radu Gyr, a poet, was an active legionary who led one of its notorious Death Squads. Earlier this year a clothing company, Legende Vii, was forced to withdraw from sale a t-shirt emblazoned with Gyr’s portrait following protests from Romania’s Holocaust Studies Institute.

We notice however that while it is no longer possible to buy Radu Gyr merchandise, clothing emblazoned with the face of Valeriu Gafencu – another murdering legionary scumbag who eventually rotted away in prison – is still available:

FireShot Capture 82 - Produse I Legende Vii - http___legendevii.ro_

Quite how these t-shirts do not break Romania’s strict law banning fascist symbols and propaganda is a question for another day, as is which kind of sick fuck wants to buy this stuff?

Codreanu led the Legion with an iron fist and central control over the membership was tight. All new recruits had to read his atrocious writings. Dissent was not tolerated and legionaries who stepped out of line were severely dealt with, sometimes even murdered. So obsessed with discipline was Codreanu that he even issued a decree dictating how legionaries spent their free time (in the service of the Legion, of course). The word cult barely existed in the 1930s, at least not with its current meaning. But there is little doubt that’s what the Legion was.

Though Codreanu himself was fortunately killed by Bucharest police in 1938 (if ever there was a sound case for extra-judicial killing, this was it) the movement did not die with him. In partnership (until they later fell-out) with Codreanu’s father Ion, the leadership was assumed by Horia Sima and, if anything, the Legion became even more violent. From September 1940 to January 1941 it briefly ran the country, until Marshal Ion Antonescu, Romania’s wartime military dictator and himself no angel, could no longer tolerate the Legion’s violence. It survived in exile (Sima went first to Germany and ended up in Franco’s Spain), although many of its foot soldiers were imprisoned. Others became communists.

It is hard not to make the obvious comparison between the violent, peasant-student movement of early 1920s Romania (which begat the Legion) and the Red Guards of late 1960s China. Both sets of students were appallingly educated (barely literate in some cases) intent not just on usurping their elders but utterly destroying them. The Legion’s ideology, not fully developed until the mid-1930s, placed great emphasis on the need for the individual to wholly submit to the collective. It is no wonder so many former legionaries found communism attractive.

Finally, it is important to note how similar legionary ideas are to those of today’s Romanian ultra-nationalists. The threads which ran through legionary dogma: Jews/foreigners/women-with-ideas-above-their-station are preventing us from becoming a great people/country; the modern world is evil; they are colonising us and destroying our culture and traditions; only sacrifice, blind obedience and a return to reactionary values can save us; are there for all to see in the rantings of the neo-Legionaries.

Fortunately, today’s Romanian youth is much different to its 1930s equivalent. Hedonistic, well-read, well-traveled, open-minded and increasingly wealthy, these are not the shock troops of a legionary revival. The pleadings of today’s fascists are thankfully falling on deaf ears.

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44 thoughts on “No Saints: Romania’s Legionary Death Cult

  1. Here’s a bit from the Amazon UK product description: „Clark’s sweeping history traces fascist organizing in interwar Romania to nineteenth-century grassroots nationalist movements that demanded political independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It also shows how closely the movement was associated with the Romanian Orthodox Church and how the uniforms, marches, and rituals were inspired by the muscular, martial aesthetic of fascism elsewhere in Europe. Although antisemitism was a key feature of official fascist ideology, state violence against Legionaries rather than the extensive fascist violence against Jews had a far greater impact on how Romanians viewed the movement and their role in it.”

    I would add that, in some respects, interwar Romania looks like today’s Middle East, with Isis and Nusra being the local (and even more violent) equivalent of the Legion.

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    1. I actually read it differently. In fact, until I read this book I had also considered the legion to be a kind of Romanian ISIS. But their fanaticism appears to have been far more secular. They may have had support from parts of the church (which they milked) but they certainly weren’t Christians. You can’t do the kind of things they did and consider yourself a Christian. No, it was a death cult.

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      1. “You can’t do the kind of things they did and consider yourself a Christian.” I’m not going to comment on whether the Legion were Christian or not, but to imply that Christians haven’t done terrible things, (and still considered themselves Christians) is absurd in the extreme.

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      2. It’s not about that. Nobody is suggesting that Christians haven’t committed atrocities in the name of their religion. I would simply argue that you shouldn’t be calling yourself a Christian if you belong an organisation whose dogma was one of hatred, such as the legion.

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      3. The KKK, the different Catholic Inquisitions, The Crusades, the Killing of the Cathars, and a very long etc, which doesn’t include all the killings from the Old Testament. Christianity has everything to do with hate and killing, as do most religions.

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      4. The KKK was wonderful, I think it should be reinstated to put lazy negroes to respect.

        The Catholic Inquisitions were stupid, killing their own people.

        The Crusades should have been taken to the end: kill all muslims from the face of the Earth. Because crusaders didn’t finish their job, now we have muslim terrorists in Europe and the US.

        Everything else is too old or too small to be remembered.

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  2. “Legionaries began arresting Jews on 20 January,”……………..Oh dear here we go again with this never ending guff. And did Roland Rat witness all this with his own eyes?

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    1. No, but Associated Press correspondent Robert St John did, and he wrote about it at length in his book Foreign Correspondent. You ought to try reading it.

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    2. Personally I feel indifferent about the Holocaust, Mr. Rearguard.

      I wouldn’t deny it, nor would I endorse it, but I really don’t give a fuck about it.

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  3. “…most were aged between fifteen and twenty-five years old.”

    Nothing more dangerous than an angry, indoctrinated 15-25 year old male. Especially if he’s also rather poorly educated.

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      1. Elite? Hardly, many could barely read or write. They were a bunch of raping, killing, torturing scumbags.

        Your profile photo features a cross? Are you a Christian? If so, why are you defending such evil people who believed in a doctrine of pure hatred?

        Surely the first rule of being a Christian is to be a good person, no?

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      2. It depends on the circumstances, the Bible also says “Do not think that I came to bring peace on the earth; I did not come to bring peace, but a sword.” Some Legionnaires were good, some were bad, the legion had more than 1.000.000 members. Some people generalize only certain events.

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      3. ‘Some people generalise only certain events. ‘

        Yes, why dwell on the rape, the torture and the killing when we should be focusing on the good things about the Legion. After all, I bet they loved their mums. Most criminals do.

        You remind me of one of the most ridiculous quotes of all time, from Noam Chomsky, who quite brilliantly and totally without irony once said of the Khmer Rouge (whose hatred of the modern world was similar to the Legion, by the way):

        To concentrate on the killing is to ignore the positive aspects of Khmer Rouge rule.

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      4. I think you are relying on two sources: Matatias Carp and Sebastian’s Journal, these sources are weak, and should only be used in conjunction with other works. Why I say this? Matatias Carp It is a book which presents many facts without bibliographic sources This fact was emphasized even by the Romanian Academy in the “Istoria Romaniilor vol IX, editura enciclopedica 2008” when quoting from this source mentions in parenthesis if they have or nat bibliographic support. And Sebastian’s Journal … a Journal. About the crimes of the Rebellion if we talk about them it worth mentioning that at least one other side was involved in those events. On February 1, the Communist Party from Romania announces Moscow that they actively participated in the January events and those events should be considered “first communist revolution” ( see page 172 of the Book “partidul comunist din Romania in ani celui de al doilea razboi mondial” by Arhivele Nationale, Bucuresti 2003. ). Some cited mentions “Legionnaire police ” a an institution that was closed between November 30, 1940, and December 5, 1940 ( see dgp 45/1940). The winner will writes the history. Since 2003 I have noted with amazement how few reports we have about the events from January (police, gendarmerie, Antonescu’s cabinet … why?) A lot of Legionnaires arrested for stealing a coat or a pair of boots … really? Where are the detailed reports of informers? At some point we have reports of a mysterious car that put fire on several Jewish shops … No one investigation that to the end…. why? There were other interests to liquidate Jewish shops from city center? Legionnaire leaders were barricaded in the building until then held by their government and fight with police. Aid coming from other cities but do not go to Antonescu’s cabinet, they stop in Jews district ( who brought them there? ),something does not bind. Here is where the legionnaires HAVE to becomes retarded 🙂 , otherwise they should had to go directly to Antonescu, and finish the story. Antonescu himself being informed does not involve. I personally have a theory … but if the institutions, mention by you are not interested to know …I will not do volunteer work for them. I’m working on other projects. back to topic Legion was divided into several bodies (intellectuals did not participate in any massacre). Modern jurisprudence does not recommend collective convictions (criminals have been convicted). end

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      5. Keep digging mate, keep digging. What part of:

        ‘the Bucharest pogrom also introduced the chapter of mass abuse of Jewish women, who were sometimes raped in the presence of their families’

        do you not understand? Or are you, like the legion, evil?

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      6. Sorry man, but Victor is right. You raise false accusations:
        – Valeriu Gafencu was a murderer… really, who did he murder? You say it’s just he was imprisoned only for being a member of the Legion altough he never harmed anyone himself? This is really communist belief, you would have been a great 1950 communist prosecutor
        – Codreanu’s ASSASINATION (let’s not shy away from terms here ok?) by the police is ok? you really support that up and proudly call yourself democratic? so it’s ok for the police to bluntly disregard the law and kill their own citizens without even a mock-up trial condemning them to death? Interesting, you might be more fasicist than me
        – You take recordings from communists books to justify the torture and atrocities done on thousands of young men by the communists for only one fault, that they were “seduced” by the Legion. According to you that is enough to be called scumbag and to serve prison even though those “Scumbags” never held a gun or hit anyone and their sole participation in the Legion was singing hymns and parading in green shirts. Even though you lived in Romania for many years you understood nothing from our history and national heritage and by trying to write on those subjects you are just pathetic. I am sure you will call me a fascist but perhaps you will take some time to read more accounts of such stories before you wonder how many young Romanians respect the Legion and Codreanu for what they stood!

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  4. This article starts from a “a priori” premise which fails to maintain. The Legion was an elitist organization made by the students from law from Iasi. They were not racist and had women organizations. The Legion organized dozens of labor camps (almost 100) the only one in which they appear almost naked is the Crmen Silva camp which was organized at the seaside in midsummer (i have hundreds of photos from all the ligionary labor camps ). In legion entered thin people, even a few Gypsies and Muslims (in Dobrogea). As I said the legion was an elitist movement and only the strong hold out. (probably when I have time to publish an album nearly whit 5,000 legionary photographers and all this confusion will disappear)
    To observe the subjectivity of this Article I make two observations:

    #“Valeriu Gafencu – another murdering legionary scumbag who eventually rotted away in prison”
    – Please inform us exactly for what Valeriu was arrested, and who he killed, to be “ another murdering”

    #”Jews/foreigners/women-with-ideas-above-their-station”

    – One of the successors of Codreanu whas Nicoleta Nicolescu the leader of the women’s movement of the Legion. On “foreigners” except Russians I do not know, maybe the author can gives us a source.

    now facts: Legion was a mystical movement that combined Christian ideas with pagan concepts as “the cult of the dead” Cei “Ce au cazut ucisi de gloantele dusmane,pasesc in rand cu cei ce au ramas” – certainly not a atheist concept :)))) .

    P.S.
    Does anyone know that according to several witnesses, Valeriu Gafencu,died saving a Jew,to which gave him his medication?

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    1. The Legion was evil, and committed unspeakable crimes. Gafencu was an active member of the Legion. He is complicit in its crimes. He – like all Legionaries who rotted away in prison – got exactly what he deserved.

      Please take your pro-fascist propaganda elsewhere.

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      1. The Communist trials of the 1950s which convicted Legionnaires and not only Legionnaires would have been proud to have such an article to inspire them and to cite from.

        My grandfather hunted for Legionnaires in the woods.

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      2. First, it was not the banning free speech a structural feature of totalitarianism? Who’s fascist here? I think that you should do better than to use a “ad-hitlerum” argument. Do you have any arguments or your rhetoric is based only on this? Last time I checked collective convictions are illegitimate. When you say “unspeakable crimes” which ones do you mean? and were the authors convicted ?

        As an advice from a more experienced researcher, that’s not the way to conduct a scientific debate. If you ar not prepared for negative Peer Reviews thou shouldest not get into the public space in the first place. What did you expect? that all Romanians line up and applaud you articol? Also you must not forget that you’re a guest in this country, you’re not here to insult or to dictate to everybody how write our own history. I’m sure others did not behave the same way with you

        Free history lesson:
        Legionnaires were not fascist, because they did not need it. Codreanu took preexisting ideas that he had merged. As: at the meeting in Blaj of 3/13 May 1848, Romanian peasants have submitted ther oath of allegiance to the Austrian emperor, the country and and the nation with the left hand on the heart and the right hand pointed to the sky. Romanian merrymen who fought against boyars taxes called, themselves, “Brothers of the Cross”. Iancu on the 1870-1880 founded an organization called “Brotherhood of Motii cross”. The idea of founding a women organization, was born in December 1849, immediately after the russian peacekeeping troops have left the country. The antisemitism they copied from A.C. Cuza and Nicolae Iorga party.

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      3. They probably weren’t that bad as the pieces of shit from Romania’s Holocaust Institute are trying to depict…

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      4. Keep digging your fascist little hole. Read the book, read the Wiesel Report. They were scum, and so is anyone who supported them, or continues to defend them.

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      5. I have no reason to be afraid , I support a legitimate thesis. and if anyone dares to comment, I will immediately ask them what they did about romanien „Deutsche Volksgruppe”. A true Nazi organization who directly participated in the Holocaust, and which nobody in Romania want to talk. A an organization whose huge wealth It was claimed by a certain Mr. Claus (GEG’s legal successor ).

        http://dogaruvictor.blogspot.ro/2015/01/grupul-etnic-german-la-70-de-ani_10.html

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      6. Why don’t you give up? The legion was evil. It carried out killings, torture and rape. What kind of person wants to defend such an organisation? You really need to take a look in the mirror. You need help.

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      7. It’s a matter of nuances, because killings and torture and rape were carried out in the name of Democracy as well.

        If we condemn all killings and torture and rape, we must shoot ourselves in the heads allover the world because it’s the parliaments that we voted for which authorized the use of force in order to spread Democracy, for example (and not only Democracy!).

        The only lesson that we need to learn from the existence of the Legionary movement is what purpose they served, what were their tactical goals, if they achieved their goals and if their purpose was legitimate.

        Because sometimes in the future, there may be a need to apply the same methods in order to achieve the same goals or similar goals, serving a different or the same purpose.

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      8. Now about my thesis on the L.M. Movement elitism :

        After the governmental assassinations from 21 to 22 September 1939 could be seen from the list of those shot that the legionary movement consisted largely of intellectuals (teachers, police officers, lawyers, engineers, doctors).

        A first report on the Legion is found at CNAS of the former Fondul “D” of the SSI file 15 which shows that the Movement has its origin in Iasi studentship which separate from LANC because they did not agree with the methods used by the elder leaders of the nationalist movements

        Reports issued by authorities also shows intellectual character, the legionary movement:

        The report of: 25 II 1937 ANIC Ministry of Intern (269/1937)

        “Cei încadrați in partidele de dreapta polarizează majoritatea studențimii, careia daca nu i se adreseaza de la catedra participa si inflenteaza toate manifestarile culturarea studentesti.” As: Traian Brailieanu profesor de litere la universitatea din Chisinau, Dragosi Protopopescu profesor de limba engleza la facultatea din Bucuresti, (directul ziarului Buna vestire) Dr Corneliu Sumuleanu profesor la facultatea medicina membru de marca al partidului totu pentru tara. Sextiuniu Puscariu profesor la facultate de litere membru al partidului Totul pentru Tara

        “Autoritatile au cautat sa impiedice pe cat cu putinta (…) identificarea studentimi cu miscarea legionara. Pana in prezent insa, nu s-a putut infrana prin nici un mod orientarea studentimi catre extrema dreapta: Uniunea centrelor studentesti, ba chiar si cercurile judetene si societatile facultatilor sunt conduse de legionare sau de simpatizanti ai legiuni prin urmare chiar daca studentimea nu e inscrisa formal in partidul “totul pentru tara” ea urmeaza totusi directivele acestuia. Impiedicarea acestui curent este cat se poate de dificila (…) Studentii insa se indreapta in marea lor majoritate dupa cum am mai amintit. Catre miscarile de dreapta.”

        The report continue to reveals that: teachers and priests did legionary propaganda. (:::)

        In the informative note from February 24, 1937 of MAI (same folder from SANIC) quoted Professor Nicolae Iorga who said in the Senate: “I give Iron Guard all the Romanian students in the event of elections. Of these, less than 50% will not vote for non having satisfied ther military service. So my opinion is that in the event of elections, the Garda will not exceed 30%”

        On 18 III 1937 MAI sends a ciphered telegram nr 16 772 to all the counties -prefects , there telegram order the implementation of concrete measures that were required to curb the phenomenon of “taking over of the entire youth movement by the legionary”

        “in cadrele lor au reusit sa acapareze majoritatea tineretului aflat inca pe bancile scoli si care nu-isi mai formuleaza revendicarile decat prin directivele primite de la organizatia respective”

        After the communism take is issued a Special Order No. 38.221 in September 1945 whit the wanted runaways 576 legionary that fled the country after the events in “January 1941” the majority are mostly intellectuals

        Another interesting background on the involving of the intellectuals from provincial towns and villages (priests pofessor, teachers) is DGP/ 232 I and II in 1935 from sanic.

        About Romanian intellectuals involved, I can give a provisional list. From a study made by me still unfinished: I have no time to translate the professions sory

        # Writers, poets, publicistsȘ
        Arsavir Acterian ( 1907 – 1997) Scriitor si publicist/ Haig Acterian ( 1904 – 1942) Scriitor, fost director al teatrului national din Bucuresti/ Dimitrie Cristian AMZAR Scriitor si Doctor in Filosofie./ Dumitru Bacu ( 1925 – 1997) Scriitor si Poet/ Gabriel BALANESCU (1913 – 1986) Scriitor /Dumitru BALASA ( 1911 – 2011) Preot si Scriitor/ Lucian BLAGA (1895 – 1961) Poet, filosof, Profesor Universitar Membru al Academiei Romane/ Ion Al. BRATESCU-VOINESTI (1868 – 1946) Scriitor, membru al Academiei Romane/ Emil CIORAN (1911 – 1995) scriitor, filosof, eseist./ Alexandru CONSTANT (1906 – 1986) jurist, scriitor, fostru ministru/ Aron COTRUS (1891 – 1961) poet si diplomat roman./ Mircea ELIADE (1907 – 1986) scriitor, specialist in istoria religiilor, filosof./ Mihai Fotin ENESCU (1897 – 1987) scriitor, diplomat.

        # Priests, spiritual fathers, monks.
        Bartolomeu (Valeriu ) ANANIA (1921 – 2011) arhiepiscop si scriitor/ Nicolae BALAN ( 1882 – 1959) Mitropolit al Ardealului, Membru al Academiei Romane/ Dumitru BALASA ( 1911 – 2011) Preot si Scriitor/ Arsenie BOCA (1910 – 1989) calugar, teolog./ Vasile BOLDEANU (1902 – 1991) Preot, preot in diaspora Franta./ Dan BOTTA (1907 – 1958) preot, dramaturg, eseist./ Gheorghe CALCIU (1925 -2006) Preot, preot in diaspora Washinton, declarat „cetatean de onoare” al Statelor Unite./ Spiridon CANDEA (1902 – 1990) profesor teolog si scriitor/ Toma CHIRICUTA (1887 – 1971) Preot si profesor univrsitar./ Horia COSMOVICI (1909 – 1998) preot, avocat, scriitor./ Nicolae CRACEA ( 1911 – ?) Teolog, scriitor./ Marin FIRMILIAN (1901 – 1972) Mitropolit al Olteniei.

        # Teachers, professors, academics.
        Demostene ANDRONESCU ( 1927 – ), Profesor, poet, scriitor./ Ion BARBU ( BARBIIAN) (1895 – 1961) Profesor, Matemotician, Poet, Eseist./ Ion Bancila (1901 – 2001) Profesor de geologie, Membru titular al Academiei Romane./ Vasile Bancila ( 1897 – 1979) Profesor de Filosofie, scriitor.

        Ernest BERNA ( 1905 – 1990) Profesor univeritar, Sociolog, Scriitor./ Traian BRAILEANU (1882 – 1947) Profesor Universitar, sociolog, ministru./ Constantin CHIRITA (1912 – 1993) Profesor la Politehnica in Bucuresti, membru al Academiei Romane./ Eugen CHIRNOAGA (1891 – 1965) Profesor Universitar, doctor in Chimie. / Ion CLAUDIAN (1900 – 1987) Profesor Universitar, Medic/ Eugen COSERIU (1921 – 2002) Profesor Universitar, lingvist, Membru de onoare al Academiei Romane / Mihai Stere DEDERNA (1934 – ) Profesor, Scriitor. / Vladimir DUMITRESCU (1902 – 1991) Profesor Universitar si Arheolog,/ Gheorghe Emanoil FILIPESCU (1882 – 1937) Profesor la Politehnica. Buvuresti

        # Lawyers, Doctores, Engineers.
        Ion BANEA (1905 – 1939) Medic, Avocat si Scriitor./ Mircea BARBULESCU (1919 – 1996) Avocat si publicist./ Gheorghe BRAHONSCHI (1916 – 1997) Inginer, a construit monumentul de la Aiud./ Radu BUDISTEANU (1902 – 1991) Avocat, scriitor, ministru./ Alexandru (Alecu) CANTACUZINO (1901 – 1939) Avocat, diplomat scriitor./ Ion CANTACUZINO (1908 – 1975) medic, scriitor, critic de arta./ Ion I CARTUREANU (1883 – 1937) Doctor in drept, profesor universitar./ Nistor CHIOREANU (1907 – 1998) Avocat si doctor in drept./ Aurel CIORAN (1914 – 1997) Avocat/ Gheorghe Clime (1889 – 1939) inginer, Avocati,/ Nicolae COJOCARU (1916 – 1998) /Victor CORBUT (1914 – 1994) / Traian COTIGA (1910 – 1939)/ Stefan Augustin DOINAS (1922 – 2002) Sriitor, mmbru al Academiei Romane

        # Military
        Generarul Gheorghe BAGULESCU (1890 – 1963)/ Generarul Gheorghe CANTACUZINO (GRANICERU) (1869 – 1937) / Generarul Platon CHIRNOAGA ( 1894 – 1974) / Generalul Gheorghe COMANESCU ( )/ Generalul Dumitru CORONA ( 1885 – 1964)/ Generalul Constantin CONSTANDACHE (1876 – ?)/ Loc. Colonel Vasile DIACONESCU (? – 1939) / Generalul Nicolae DONA

        # Musicians, conductors, composers
        Sergiu CELIBIDACHE (1912 – 1996) , Dirijor celebru./ Viorel CHICIDEANU ( 1904 – ? ), Tenor Opera Romana./ Mihai CONSTANTINESCU (1926 – 1987) Profesol la Conservator si violonist,/ Paul CONSTANTINESCU (1909 – 1963) Compozitor, membru al academiei romane./ Dimitrie CUCLIN (1885 – 1978), Compozitor si Profesor la Conservator.

        # Artists, Actors.
        Maria DROC ( 1903 – 1987) Artist plastic, are o strada in madrid cu numele ei. / Ernest Maftei (6 Martie 1920 – 19 Octombrie 2006) actor foarte popular.

        PS
        That is how I support a thesis with bibliography quotes.

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  5. Yes, you are clearly a fascist, attempting to whitewash the horrific crimes of a murderous group. This is not a subject for debate: the facts are proven and documented. The Wiesel Report is clear and precise and impeccably sourced. If you deny the crimes of the Legion or attempt in any way to justify them you are guilty of Holocaust denial. Please go away you horrible little fascist.

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      1. OK, but the Report correctly concludes that the responsibility for the Romanian part of the Holocaust lies with the Romanian state, as also stated in the foreword: “The terrible tragedy of the Holocaust was possible due to the complicity of top institutions of the state – secret services, army, police etc., as well as of those who executed, often overzealously, Marshall Antonescu’s orders. ”
        Just wanted to mention that because the post-1989 local political culture tends to focus on Iron Guard’s terrorism, while ignoring and sometimes glorifying the heinous crimes of the Romanian state under Antonescu.

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      2. Yes, I agree that there has been a tendency to downplay Antonescu’s role, primarily based on the non-deportation of Wallachian Jews (a result of Antonescu – realising Germany had lost the war – seeking to keep an ace up his sleeve in any post-war trial on his complicity in the Holocaust. It didn’t, as it turned out, help him).

        The book also makes the point however that had the Legion remained in power, all of Romania’s Jews would have certainly been killed.

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